Instructional Design (ID) refers to the “systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation” (Smith & Ragan, 2005). ID has a long history beginning during the Second World War. It emerged from a behaviourist theoretical context, although over time it developed to include both cognitivist and constructivist theoretical approaches. The field is more prominent in the US, Canada and Europe than in the UK and in the corporate sector than the higher education sector. In this section, I will synthesise the critical ID models, frameworks and processes starting with M. David Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction.